What is a Reduced Flap Landing, and Why it is Perfectly Safe!

Editorial Team

31 Jul 2023


Earlier this week, DGCA suspended the flying licenses of two IndiGo pilots for violating safety norms as the aircraft they operated suffered a tail strike while landing at the Ahmedabad airport last month. The country's largest airline witnessed four tail strike incidents on A321 aircraft within a span of six months this year, following which the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) carried out a special audit in June. During the special audit, certain systemic deficiencies were observed in Indigo Airline's documentation pertaining to operations/training procedures and engineering procedures. 


In the past few days, there has been a lot of criticism in the media around the use of the reduced flap (CONF 3) landing technique and its associated safety implications. This article will try to understand what flaps are, how they assist in landings, and why pilots use reduced flap configurations. 




Aircraft flaps are movable surfaces located on the trailing edge of an airplane's wings. They are designed to change the wing's shape and increase lift during specific phases of flight, such as takeoff and landing. Flaps are crucial in improving the aircraft's performance at lower speeds, allowing it to take off and land safely on shorter runways and providing better control during approach and landing.


Flap extension during landings provides several advantages by:


Producing greater lift and permitting lower landing speed.


Producing greater drag, permitting a steep descent angle without airspeed increase.


Reducing the length of the landing roll.




Flap extension has a definite effect on the airplane’s pitch behavior. The increased camber from flap deflection produces lift primarily on the rear portion of the wing, producing a nose-down force. This pitch behavior varies on different airplane designs.



What are Reduced landing flaps?


When conditions and safety allow it, the principle of Reduce Landing Flaps is to perform the final approach until the touchdown with flaps that are not fully deployed (reduced flaps). A "reduced flap landing" is an aviation term that refers to a landing technique where an aircraft uses a lower-than-normal setting of flaps during the approach and landing phase. 





Fuel Savings


Fuel conservation is a significant concern of every airline. An airline can choose an approach procedure and flap-setting policy that uses the least amount of fuel, but it should also consider the trade-offs involved with using this type of procedure. The descent and approach phases of flight represent the flight crew’s final opportunities to reduce fuel consumption during flight. The flight crew can ensure a safe landing while saving fuel by carefully planning the airplane’s descent and appropriately using drag and high lift devices.



As per a report by Damien & Vincent, the approach is not the most fuel-consuming phase of the flight, so you may think there is not much to save during that phase. However, here are a few figures that demonstrate otherwise:




A single-aisle aircraft such as the A320 or B737 will save between 7 to 10 kg of fuel per flight by applying a lower landing configuration. For larger aircraft, the benefit can exceed 25kg per flight. For example, let’s take an airline operating a fleet of only 20 single-aisle aircraft flying six flights a day. Since a Reduced Landing configuration allows for saving around 7 kg per flight, this will result in more than 300 tons of fuel saved per year (or more than 100,000 gallons), which represents a significant cost.


There is also significant savings by reducing the chances of a go-around. The fuel burned during one missed approach is equivalent to 2 to 28 times the fuel burn required for a descent and approach.






Aircraft Handling


Most aircraft manufacturers recommend using reduced flaps when landing in strong crosswinds. Flaps will provide more lift, allowing you to fly at lower air speeds. The lower your airspeed is, the less effective your controls become. So, in a strong crosswind, using partial flaps increases your final approach speed, and in turn, increases your control's effectiveness (especially your rudder), allowing you to make the perfect crosswind landing.






It reduces the drag and requires less thrust and less fuel consumption during the approach phase.


It reduces the noise disturbance near airports.


Better handling in gusty conditions.


More available energy in the event of a missed approach (go around).




Faster approach speeds


Longer landing distance


Extra energy during landing causes additional stress on brakes resulting in more frequent maintenance procedures.


Reduced tail strike margin



In Practice


Reduced landing flaps are a very common fuel-saving best practice. By calculating the landing performance, the pilots will ensure the landing is possible with the Reduced Landing flaps configuration. However, certain conditions may prevent applying it:


High altitude airports


Short runways


Low headwind that reduces the lift


High temperatures and low atmospheric pressures


Need to vacate the runway quickly at the next taxiway


If you want to increase the Reduced landing flaps application rate without compromising safety, here are some tips:


First, provide guidance on how to perform it and clear procedures that explain when to apply it or not


Focus on low-altitude airports and where the runway is long enough


Communicate regularly with pilots to engage them and remind the procedure and its safety considerations.


Finally, we believe the most efficient way to increase the Reduced landing flaps application is to empower pilots with a tool (such as a mobile app) to give them personal and confidential feedback on each flight and best practices, including 3D visualization.


Final Words


It's important to note that the use of reduced flap landings is specific to each aircraft type, and pilots are trained to follow the manufacturer's guidelines and standard operating procedures for flap settings during various phases of flight, including landing. Decisions regarding flap settings are based on factors such as aircraft weight, runway length, weather conditions, and the aircraft's handling characteristics. Flight crews can vary their approach procedures and flap selections to match the flight’s strategic objectives, which almost always include fuel conservation, noise abatement, and emissions reduction. Decisions on which type of approach to use vary with each airline, and sometimes even for each flight.











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Pratt & Whitney to Take $181 Million Hit Due Go First Insolvency

Abhishek Nayar

31 Jul 2023

In recent news, Pratt & Whitney, a renowned aerospace manufacturer, has been at the center of controversy due to accusations made by Go First regarding its voluntary insolvency. The company has faced significant challenges and now must deal with the repercussions of these allegations.

Understanding the Accusations

Go First's Allegations

Go First, a prominent player in the aviation industry, accused Pratt & Whitney of engaging in voluntary insolvency. This serious accusation has put the company under immense scrutiny and raised concerns among its stakeholders, shareholders, and customers.

The Impact on Operating Profit

The accusations made by Go First resulted in a substantial financial charge for Pratt & Whitney. According to the company's Q2 financial results, “a charge related to a customer insolvency amounted to $181 million”. This significant financial blow reduced Pratt & Whitney's operating profit by a staggering 24% year on year, leaving it at $230 million for the quarter that concluded in June.

The aerospace corporation based in the United States did not specifically mention Go First as a customer. However, Go First blamed the failure of its engines, which led the airline to suspend operations in May. Pratt & Whitney stated that if not for the insolvency charge, adjusted operating profit would have increased 44% year on year to $436 million in the June quarter.

Analyzing the Implications

Financial Repercussions

The $181 million charge imposed on Pratt & Whitney has profound implications for the company's financial stability. Such a considerable financial hit can impact its ability to invest in research, development, and innovation, potentially leading to a slowdown in new product launches and advancements in its technology.

Reputation and Customer Trust

Accusations of insolvency can severely tarnish a company's reputation and erode customer trust. Pratt & Whitney's long-standing reputation as a reliable and trustworthy aerospace manufacturer may be at risk due to these allegations. Rebuilding customer confidence will be essential to maintaining its market share and customer base.

Pratt & Whitney's Response

Defense Against Allegations

In response to the accusations, Pratt & Whitney has vehemently denied engaging in voluntary insolvency. The company has released official statements asserting that the allegations are baseless and that they remain financially stable. However, regaining the trust of stakeholders and customers will require more than just verbal defenses.

Financial Recovery Strategy

To mitigate the financial impact of the $181 million charge, Pratt & Whitney has outlined a comprehensive recovery strategy. Cost-cutting measures, efficiency improvements, and strategic partnerships are among the initiatives the company is taking to regain financial stability and minimize the effects of the charge.


Pratt & Whitney's journey through accusations and the subsequent financial charge has put the company's resilience and reputation to the test. The accusations of voluntary insolvency have taken a toll on its operating profit, leaving it to deal with significant financial consequences. The company's response and recovery strategy will be critical in navigating through these challenging times and restoring its reputation in the aerospace industry.

With Inputs from Aviation India

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China Airlines and Philippine Airlines to Add More Codeshare Routes

Abhishek Nayar

31 Jul 2023

In a strategic move to capitalize on the resurging travel market between Taiwan and the Philippines, China Airlines and Philippine Airlines have jointly announced the extension of their codeshare partnership. This collaboration aims to offer travelers more comprehensive and convenient flying options, catering to both local and transit passengers.

As travel restrictions ease and confidence in flying returns, the two airlines are poised to enhance connectivity and provide seamless journeys for passengers across their expanded Taipei-Cebu, Kaohsiung-Manila routes, and beyond.

Understanding the Codeshare Partnership

What is a Codeshare Agreement?

A codeshare agreement is a strategic alliance between two or more airlines that allows them to share flight routes and services. It enables airlines to extend their networks without having to operate additional flights, thereby maximizing efficiency, and reaching a broader customer base.

History of China Airlines and Philippine Airlines Collaboration

China Airlines and Philippine Airlines have a history of successful collaboration. They first entered into a codeshare agreement several years ago, which opened up new travel possibilities between Taiwan and the Philippines. The partnership allowed passengers to book flights on either airline while enjoying the convenience of coordinated schedules and smoother transit experiences.

The Post-COVID Travel Market: A Lucrative Opportunity

Rebounding Travel Industry

As the world gradually emerges from the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, the travel industry is experiencing a robust resurgence. With vaccination drives and safety protocols in place, people are regaining confidence in air travel, leading to a surge in demand for flights between key destinations.

Taiwan-Philippines Travel Corridor

The Taiwan-Philippines air route has proven to be one of the most sought-after travel corridors in the Asia-Pacific region. Both Taiwan and the Philippines boast picturesque landscapes, rich cultural heritage, and diverse attractions, making them highly popular destinations for leisure and business travelers alike. China Airlines and Philippine Airlines have long maintained a codeshare flight between Taipei and Manila.

The New Additions: Expanded Routes and Destinations

Taipei-Cebu Route

The extension of the codeshare agreement between China Airlines and Philippine Airlines brings forth the addition of the Taipei-Cebu route. This route (CI705/706) will have five weekly flights. Cebu, known as the "Queen City of the South," is a vibrant destination with pristine beaches, historical landmarks, and a burgeoning business district. Travelers from Taiwan will now have more flexibility to explore Cebu's beauty, while Cebuano travelers can seamlessly connect to China Airlines' extensive network.

Kaohsiung-Manila Route

The Kaohsiung-Manila route is another exciting inclusion in the expanded codeshare agreement. This route (CI711/712) will have four weekly flights. Manila, the capital of the Philippines, is a bustling metropolis offering a mix of modernity and tradition. By collaborating on this route, both airlines aim to attract more tourists, business travelers, and overseas Filipino workers, fostering stronger economic ties between the two nations.

Connecting Flights to Regional Filipino Locations

Beyond the primary routes, China Airlines and Philippine Airlines will also provide connecting flights to various regional locations in the Philippines. This move enhances accessibility to lesser-known but equally enchanting destinations, contributing to the growth of regional tourism and empowering local economies. Philippine Airlines will operate services between Manila-Cebu, Manila-Davao , Manila-Iloilo, Cebu-Davao, and Cebu-Iloilo routes.

Enhancing the Travel Experience

Seamless Transit and Convenient Connections

With this codeshare agreement, travelers can enjoy seamless transit between flights, hassle-free baggage transfers, and coordinated check-in processes. These conveniences eliminate the need for multiple bookings and reduce layover times, creating a smoother travel experience for passengers.

Access to Loyalty Programs and Benefits

Frequent flyers on both China Airlines and Philippine Airlines can continue to accumulate and redeem miles under the codeshare agreement. This ensures that loyal customers receive the benefits they deserve while encouraging customer retention and brand loyalty.


The extension of the codeshare partnership between China Airlines and Philippine Airlines marks a significant milestone in the post-COVID aviation landscape. As travel demands surge between Taiwan and the Philippines, the two airlines are poised to cater to the growing needs of travelers. The expanded routes and destinations will unlock new travel opportunities, boost regional tourism, and foster stronger ties between the two nations. With a focus on enhancing the travel experience, both airlines are well-positioned to provide passengers with seamless and convenient flying alternatives.

With Inputs from China Airlines

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flynas Reports Increase in Passengers for First Half of 2023

Abhishek Nayar

31 Jul 2023

In recent years, the aviation industry has witnessed significant growth and transformation. Among the notable players, Flynas, the Saudi air carrier, has emerged as a leading low-cost airline in the world and the Middle East. The airline has been making headlines with its remarkable performance, reporting an impressive 46% increase in revenues for the first half of 2023 compared to the same period in the previous year.

The Rise of Flynas

Flynas, established in 2007, has rapidly risen to prominence in the aviation sector. It has built a reputation for offering affordable air travel without compromising on quality. Over the years, the airline has strategically expanded its route network, connecting key destinations across the globe.

Impressive Revenue Surge

The first half of 2023 brought significant financial gains for Flynas. The airline witnessed an extraordinary 46% surge in revenues, showcasing its ability to attract a growing customer base and maintain a competitive edge in the market. This remarkable achievement highlights the airline's robust business strategy and commitment to customer satisfaction.

Increase in Passenger Numbers

One of the primary contributors to Flynas' revenue surge was the notable increase in passenger numbers. Approximately 5 million passengers chose to fly with Flynas during the first half of 2023, marking a substantial 26% rise compared to the same period in the previous year. This rise in demand indicates the trust passengers place in the airline for safe and cost-effective travel.

Expanding Fleet and Seat Capacity

To meet the escalating demand, Flynas took significant steps to expand its fleet and seat capacity. The airline upscaled its fleet by 19%, bringing the total number of aircraft to 51. This expansion not only allowed Flynas to cater to a larger audience but also facilitated the introduction of new routes and improved flight frequency to existing destinations.

Flynas' Position in the Low-Cost Airline Market

Flynas' success can be attributed to its strong foothold in the low-cost airline market. The airline has successfully positioned itself as a preferred choice for budget-conscious travelers, offering competitive fares without compromising on quality and customer service. This approach has helped Flynas gain a significant advantage over its competitors in the industry.

Semi-Annual Performance Report

The semi-annual performance report reflects Flynas' dedication to transparency and accountability. The airline's impressive financial growth, increased passenger numbers, and fleet expansion are all testaments to its commitment to excellence and efficiency in operations.

Future Prospects and Growth Opportunities

Looking ahead, Flynas is well-positioned to capitalize on the growing demand for affordable air travel. With its expanding fleet and strategic route network, the airline is poised to tap into new markets and explore growth opportunities in the aviation industry.


"We are proud of flynas' performance during the first half of 2023," stated Bander Almohanna, CEO and Managing Director of flynas. This industry-leading operational performance will keep us on schedule to meet our full-year targets as we continue to continuously expand our network, foster fresh partnerships, and enhance our operational capacity."

Almohanna stated that flynas's growth rates and outstanding performance are the outcome of the company's development and expansion plan, which was introduced at the beginning of the year. "We launched ten new destinations and routes this summer and became the first Saudi air carrier to launch direct flights from Riyadh and Jeddah to Sphinx International Airport in Cairo, and in partnership with the Air Connectivity Program, we began operating direct flights from King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah to Bishkek and Osh in Kyrgyzstan and Almaty in Kazakhstan, as well as increasing the frequency of weekly flights to Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.”


Flynas' outstanding performance in the first half of 2023 highlights its status as a leading low-cost airline in the world and the Middle East. The significant surge in revenues, increase in passenger numbers, and expansion of its fleet and seat capacity are all indicators of a successful growth trajectory. As Flynas continues to make waves in the aviation market, it is evident that the airline's commitment to providing affordable and high-quality air travel experiences will remain at the forefront of its operations.

With Inputs from flynas

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Air France-KLM Group Sees Remarkable Increase in Q2 Profits

Abhishek Nayar

31 Jul 2023

Air France-KLM, a prominent Franco-Dutch airline group, has made a remarkable financial achievement in the second quarter of 2023. The company witnessed a substantial surge in quarterly earnings, attributing it to a significant increase in passenger traffic and a well-executed business strategy.

Air France-KLM's Q2 2023 Revenue Soars by 13.7%

During the second quarter of 2023, Air France-KLM experienced substantial growth in revenue. The company's total revenue stood at €7.62 billion, marking an impressive year-on-year increase of 13.7%. This surge in revenue highlights the airline group's strong performance and resilience amid challenging market conditions.

Exceeding Expectations: Operational Profit Reaches €733 Million

In addition to the remarkable revenue growth, Air France-KLM's operational profit in Q2 2023 reached €733 million. This figure not only exceeded market expectations but also demonstrated the airline group's ability to manage costs efficiently and maintain profitability. The company's prudent financial management and focus on operational efficiency have played a pivotal role in achieving this feat.

Net Earnings Nearly Double in Q2 2023

One of the most notable achievements of Air France-KLM in the second quarter of 2023 was the substantial growth in net earnings. The net earnings soared to €604 million, almost doubling from €324 million in the same period the previous year. This significant increase reflects the company's ability to attract more passengers and optimize its revenue streams effectively.

Factors Driving Air France-KLM's Success

Several key factors have contributed to Air France-KLM's remarkable success in Q2 2023. Let us explore some of the pivotal elements that have driven the airline group's growth.

A Focus on Customer Experience and Satisfaction

Air France-KLM has consistently emphasized delivering exceptional customer experiences to its passengers. By prioritizing customer satisfaction, the airline has managed to build strong brand loyalty and attract more travelers. Personalized services, in-flight comfort, and attentive customer care have all contributed to enhancing the overall passenger experience.

Expanding Passenger Capacity

The airline's capacity to handle 24.7 million passengers between April and June 2023 was one of the main elements behind this outstanding performance. The second-quarter capacity achieved an outstanding 92% of 2019 capacity levels, demonstrating a progressive rebound from the pandemic's issues. Air France-KLM remains optimistic about the remainder of the year, anticipating capacity to hover around 95%.

Expansion of Routes and Destinations

Another crucial element of Air France-KLM's success has been its strategic expansion of routes and destinations. By connecting travelers to more cities and countries, the airline has tapped into new markets and widened its customer base. This expansion has not only increased revenue opportunities but also positioned Air France-KLM as a preferred choice for global travelers.

Embracing Sustainable Practices

Air France-KLM's commitment to sustainability has been instrumental in its growth. By implementing eco-friendly initiatives, such as fuel-efficient aircraft, waste reduction programs, and carbon offsetting, the airline has gained favor among environmentally-conscious travelers. Sustainable practices have not only reduced the airline's environmental impact but also contributed to its positive brand image.

Leveraging Technology for Operational Efficiency

Technology has played a vital role in optimizing Air France-KLM's operations. The airline has leveraged data analytics, artificial intelligence, and automation to streamline processes, enhance crew scheduling, and improve overall operational efficiency. By adopting cutting-edge technologies, Air France-KLM has remained at the forefront of the aviation industry's digital transformation.

Challenges and Opportunities Ahead

Despite its remarkable success, Air France-KLM faces various challenges and opportunities in the dynamic aviation landscape. Economic uncertainties, geopolitical factors, and fluctuating fuel prices continue to pose challenges to the industry. However, by embracing innovation, adapting to changing market trends, and prioritizing customer needs, the airline can capitalize on new opportunities for sustainable growth.


Air France-KLM's remarkable Q2 2023 earnings surge stands as a testament to the airline group's dedication to excellence, innovation, and customer satisfaction. With a strong focus on sustainability, operational efficiency, and customer experience, Air France-KLM has set a positive example for the aviation industry. As the company continues to navigate challenges and embrace opportunities, its commitment to delivering exceptional service remains unwavering.

With Inputs from Air France-KLM

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Southwest Airlines Orders 19 Additional Boeing 737MAX 7 Jets

Abhishek Nayar

29 Jul 2023

In a recent disclosure, Southwest Airlines shared its second-quarter statistics for the year 2023, revealing its decision to add more aircraft to its growing fleet. The airline has confirmed its order for an additional 18 Boeing 737 MAX 7 aircraft, a move that signals the company's confidence in its future growth prospects.

Southwest Airlines' Fleet Update

Southwest Airlines has been a key player in the aviation industry for many years. As part of its ongoing strategy to enhance passenger experience and maintain its position as a leading low-cost carrier, the company continually assesses its fleet requirements. The second quarter of 2023 marked a significant milestone as the airline decided to bolster its fleet by exercising options for 18 Boeing 737 MAX 7 aircraft.

The airline also stated that 16 previous MAX 7 firm orders had been converted to MAX 8 firm orders. Southwest declared that it will complete the second quarter with 803 aircraft after receiving 21 MAX 8 aircraft and retiring 11 Boeing 737-700s.

The Significance of Boeing 737 MAX 7

The Boeing 737 MAX 7 is a highly anticipated addition to Southwest Airlines' fleet. Known for its fuel efficiency, increased range, and advanced technology, the MAX 7 promises to be a game-changer for the airline. With a seating capacity that falls between the 737 MAX 8 and the 737-700, this aircraft model strikes the right balance, making it ideal for various route types and optimizing operational costs.

Enhanced Passenger Experience

Southwest Airlines has always emphasized providing an exceptional flying experience to its customers. The addition of the Boeing 737 MAX 7 is expected to further elevate the comfort and convenience of passengers. The aircraft's modern amenities and spacious interior design will undoubtedly contribute to an enjoyable journey for travelers.

Commitment to Safety

While the decision to add more aircraft to its fleet is an exciting move for Southwest Airlines, the company remains steadfast in its commitment to safety. The Boeing 737 MAX 7's delivery date is subject to approval and certification by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This step ensures that the aircraft complies with all necessary safety standards before it can join the airline's fleet.

"The FAA will ultimately determine the timing of the -7 certification and entry into service, and the Company therefore offers no assurances that current estimations and timelines are correct," Southwest stated in a statement.

Collaborative Efforts with Boeing

As Southwest Airlines awaits the FAA's clearance, the carrier continues to work closely with Boeing to ensure a smooth and timely delivery process. The airline's dedication to collaborating with the aircraft manufacturer reflects its commitment to operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.

Positive Impact on Operations

The addition of 18 Boeing 737 MAX 7 aircraft will not only expand Southwest Airlines' fleet but also positively impact its operations. With newer and more fuel-efficient planes, the airline can optimize its flight schedules, potentially explore new destinations, and provide more flight options to its customers.

Environmental Considerations

In today's world, environmental sustainability is a crucial factor in the aviation industry. The Boeing 737 MAX 7 is designed to be more eco-friendly, with reduced carbon emissions and improved fuel efficiency. By investing in such modern aircraft, Southwest Airlines showcases its commitment to environmental responsibility.

The Future of Southwest Airlines

Southwest Airlines' decision to add 18 Boeing 737 MAX 7 aircraft is indicative of the company's confidence in its future growth and success. As the aviation industry rebounds from the challenges of the past, the airline positions itself to meet the demands of the evolving market.


Southwest Airlines' recent order for 18 Boeing 737 MAX 7 aircraft underscores the company's commitment to providing a superior travel experience for its passengers. The investment in newer, more efficient aircraft aligns with the airline's long-standing dedication to safety, customer satisfaction, and operational excellence. As the aviation industry continues to recover, Southwest Airlines stands ready to soar to new heights with its expanded fleet and unwavering focus on quality service.

With Inputs from Southwest Airlines